Does the MC4 receptor cause obesity?
Mutations in the MC4 receptor are a relatively common cause of severe childhood obesity (Farooqi et al., 2000, 2003; Vaisse et al., 2000, Mackenzie, 2006).
What type of mutation causes obesity?
The new study — which was recently published in the journal Nature Genetics — suggests that mutations in a gene called adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) lead to obesity.
What does the MC4R gene do?
The melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis, food intake and body weight in the hypothalamus. MC4R mutations are the most common form of monogenic obesity and have been implicated in 1% to 6% of early-onset severe obesity.
How does the FTO gene cause obesity?
Senior author of the paper, Dyan Sellayah, says individuals with high levels of the FTO gene may be more likely to become obese due to increased production of fat cells, which would expand storage capacity and favor the deposition of energy over energy burning.
Where are melanocortin 4 receptors located?
It encodes the MC4 protein, a G protein-coupled receptor that binds α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)….Melanocortin 4 receptor.
|Location (UCSC)||Chr 18: 60.37 – 60.37 Mb||Chr 18: 66.86 – 66.86 Mb|
|View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse|
What is monogenic obesity?
Monogenic obesity is described as rare and severe early-onset obesity with abnormal feeding behavior and endocrine disorders. This is mainly due to autosomal recessive mutations in genes of the leptin-melanocortin pathway which plays a key role in the hypothalamic control of food intake.
Is morbid obesity genetic?
Background: The influence of genetics on obesity is well established. Adoption studies and twin studies suggest that about 80% of the obesity risk is genetic.
Is obesity a genetic mutation?
“Common Obesity” Caused by Mutations in Multiple Genes But rather than being controlled by a single gene, susceptibility to common obesity is thought to be affected by many genes (polygenic). Twin studies offer some insight into the genetics of common obesity.
What is FTO in obesity?
The gene that has been the most strongly and frequently associated with susceptibility to obesity is the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, which has most influence on body mass index (BMI) of all known genes.
What is the prevalence of MC4R deficiency in obesity?
Studies regarding the frequency of MC4R mutations associated with human obesity have provided variable results (up to 6% of obese subjects). Various findings suggest an oligogenic and codominant mode of inheritance for MC4R deficiency, with modulation of expressivity and penetrance of the phenotype.
What is the main cause of obesity?
The current alarming spread of obesity in many parts of the world is caused by a sudden environmental shift characterized by replacement of a frugal diet with low cost, energy dense food, and little requests for physical activity during work and leisure time. Yet, not all people exposed to an obesog …
Is MC4R deficiency an oligogenic or a codominant disease?
Various findings suggest an oligogenic and codominant mode of inheritance for MC4R deficiency, with modulation of expressivity and penetrance of the phenotype.