How is exophthalmos measured in CT?
Method 1: Proptosis measurements were made on the CT scan by drawing a horizontal line between the lateral orbital rims on the axial plane that bisects the lens and then drawing a perpendicular line forward to the posterior surface of the cornea.
What is an exophthalmos?
Exophthalmos, also known as proptosis, is the medical term for bulging or protruding eyeballs. It can affect 1 or both eyes and is most often caused by thyroid eye disease.
How is exophthalmos radiology measured?
A line between the bony lateral orbital margins is drawn on the slice containing the optic nerve head and lens, and the distance of the cornea in front of this line is measured. When the radiographic criteria are met, proptosis can be measured with accuracy of 0.8 mm.
How do you do Exophthalmometry?
The Hertel exophthalmometer is used to determine the axial position of the eyes. The instrument is placed on the lateral orbital rim of each side, using as small of a base as possible. Depending on the device, lines on the prism are placed into position by moving the examiners view point to determine the measurement.
What causes exophthalmos?
In adults, the most common cause of unilateral and bilateral exophthalmos is thyroid-associated eye disease, such as Graves-related ophthalmopathy. In children, orbital cellulitis is the most common cause, whereas bilateral exophthalmos is most likely due to neuroblastoma and leukemia.
What causes exophthalmos pathophysiology?
The most common cause for unilateral or bilateral exophthalmos is thyroid eye disease, or Graves ophthalmopathy. The proptosis arises from inflammation, cellular proliferation, and accumulation of fluid in the tissues that surround the eyeball in its socket, or orbit.
How is exophthalmos measured?
Proptosis is measured using an exophthalmometer. This device takes a millimeter measurement of the distance between the anterior cornea and the temporal orbital rim for each eye. For an individual patient the measurement base is the distance between the two temporal orbital rim margins.
What is the use of Exophthalmometry?
An exophthalmometer is an instrument used for measuring the degree of forward displacement of the eye in exophthalmos. The device allows measurement of the forward distance of the lateral orbital rim to the front of the cornea.
How do you assess Exophthalmos?
Look for lid swelling, engorged conjunctival and episcleral vessels and lagophthalmos/incomplete lid closure. Palpate the orbit for any tenderness or masses and examine the regional lymph nodes. If you suspect a high-flow lesion, listen to the globe over the closed eyelid with a stethoscope.
Is Buphthalmos genetic?
Buphthalmia (hydrophthalmus, congenital infantile glaucoma) in rabbits is considered to be due to an autosomal recessive gene (bu) with incomplete penetrance”.
What does exophthalmos mean in patient information?
Patient Information. Definition: Exophthalmos is a condition, wherein the eyes protrude due to certain disease conditions or inflammatory response to various factors. Such a type of eye disease can either be bilateral or unilateral in nature. The condition should be promptly treated to avoid onset of debilitating complications.
What is unilateral exophthalmos (proptosis)?
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit. Exophthalmos can be either bilateral (as is often seen in Graves’ disease) or unilateral (as is often seen in an orbital tumor).
What is exophthalmos in Graves disease?
Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It most commonly manifests in thyroid-associated eye disease such as Graves’ disease ophthalmopathy.
What causes exophthalmos in the eyes?
The autoimmune antibodies can attack the muscles and soft tissue surrounding the eyes, which can cause them to protrude from the sockets. Exophthalmos is a symptom of Graves’ disease. Graves’ disease is the most common cause of exophthalmos. Anywhere from 25-50 percent of people with this condition will have an eye involvement.