# What are limits of spherical polar coordinates?

## What are limits of spherical polar coordinates?

Definition of spherical coordinates ρ = distance to origin, ρ ≥ 0 φ = angle to z-axis, 0 ≤ φ ≤ π θ = usual θ = angle of projection to xy-plane with x-axis, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π Easy trigonometry gives: z = ρcosφ x = ρsinφcosθ y = ρsinφsinθ.

### Can Rho be negative in spherical coordinates?

If θ is held constant, then the ratio between x and y is constant. Thus, the equation θ= constant gives a line through the origin in the xy-plane. Since z is unrestricted, we get a vertical plane. Looking back at relationship (1), we see it is only a half plane because ρsinϕ cannot be negative.

#### What are the bounds of the first Octant?

z3√x2 + y2 + z2dV , where D is the region in the first octant which is bounded by x = 0, y = 0, z = √x2 + y2, and z = √1 − (x2 + y2). Express this integral as an iterated integral in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

Can Phi be negative in spherical coordinates?

you want to let θ to from 0 to 2π and φ go from 0 to π, otherwise the sin(φ) factor can be negative.

What is DX DY DZ in spherical coordinates?

dx dy dz = r2 sinφ dr dφ dθ. Note that the angle θ is the same in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Note that the distance r is different in cylindrical and in spherical coordinates.

## Why do we use spherical coordinates in triple integrals?

When you are performing a triple integral, if you choose to describe the function and the bounds of your region using spherical coordinates, , the tiny volume should be expanded as follows: Converting to spherical coordinates can make triple integrals much easier to work out when the region you are integrating over has some spherical symmetry.

### How do you integrate over a three-dimensional region?

As discussed in the introduction to triple integrals, when you are integrating over a three-dimensional region , it helps to imagine breaking it up into infinitely many infinitely small pieces, each with volume . When you were working in cartesian coordinates, these tiny pieces were thought of as rectangular blocks.

#### Why do we use multiple integrals for volume?

Because the way multiple integrals work is that each individual integral treats all coordinate as constants, except for one. Therefore, as we consider how the multiple integral as a whole assembles these tiny pieces together, it is more natural to think about pieces whose volume can be expressed in terms of changes to individual coordinates.

How to express a function in spherical coordinates?

Give it whatever function you want expressed in spherical coordinates, choose the order of integration and choose the limits

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