What are Microfold cells?
Microfold cells, or M cells, are intestinal epithelial cells that are specialized for antigen sampling. They are found predominantly in the follicle-associated epithelium overlying the surfaces of intestinal lymphoid tissues such as Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles.
What is the function of Microfold cells?
Microfold (M) cells are located in the epithelium covering mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, such as the Peyer’s patches (PPs) of the small intestine. M cells actively transport luminal antigens to the underlying lymphoid follicles to initiate an immune response.
What do tuft cells do?
They seem to be related to taste cells, which which they share sensory molecules involved in the transduction of bitter and umami tastes. The major role of tuft cells is to initiate T helper, type 2 (Th2) immune responses to parasites, including both intestinal helminths and protozoa.
What is the role of Microfold cells in mucosal immunity?
These cells are known to initiate mucosal immunity responses on the apical membrane of the M cells and allow for transport of microbes and particles across the epithelial cell layer from the gut lumen to the lamina propria where interactions with immune cells can take place.
Why is transcytosis important?
Due to the function of transcytosis as a process that transports macromolecules across cells, it can be a convenient mechanism by which pathogens can invade a tissue. Transcytosis has been shown to be critical to the entry of Cronobacter sakazakii across the intestinal epithelium as well as the blood–brain barrier.
What is meaning of tuft cell?
Tuft cells are chemosensory cells in the epithelial lining of the intestines. Similar tufted cells are found in the respiratory epithelium where they are known as brush cells. The name “tuft” refers to the brush-like microvilli projecting from the cells.
What is tuft of cilia?
An apical tuft, which is observed in a wide range of embryos/larvae of marine invertebrates, is composed of a group of cilia that are longer and less motile than the abundant lateral cilia covering the rest of the embryonic surface.
What is the main function of dendritic cells?
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous family of immune cells that link innate and adaptive immunity. The main function of these innate cells is to capture, process, and present antigens to adaptive immune cells and mediate their polarization into effector cells (1).
What do enterocytes do?
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and large intestines. This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen.
What is micromicrofold cell?
microfold cell. An intestinal mucosal cell that overlies Peyer’s patches and has microfolds instead of microvilli, which allows lymphocytes to approach the intestinal lumen without violating its integrity.
What is micromicrofold epithelial tissue?
microfold cells specialized intestinal epithelial cells found in association with the lymphoid follicles, as in Peyer patches of the ileum; characterized by elaborate invaginations of their apical cell surface that harbor numerous lymphocytes and macrophages; believed to phagocytose antigens and present them to underlying lymphoid cells.
What does M cells mean?
M Cells (Microfold Cells) Microfold or M cells are epithelial cells embedded in the epithelium of mucosal tissues such as intestine, lung, and nasopharynx.
What is the difference between microvilli and microfolds?
When they present microvilli, they are short, irregular, and present on the apical surface or pocket-like invagination on the basolateral surface of these cells. When they lack microvilli, they are characterized by their microfolds, and hence receive their commonly known name.