What are the conditions for pasteurization?
Pasteurization of milk, widely practiced in several countries, notably the United States, requires temperatures of about 63 °C (145 °F) maintained for 30 minutes or, alternatively, heating to a higher temperature, 72 °C (162 °F), and holding for 15 seconds (and yet higher temperatures for shorter periods of time).
What is involved in pasteurization?
The process of pasteurisation involves heating milk to 71.7°C for at least 15 seconds (and no more than 25 seconds). Because of the nature of the heat treatment it sometimes referred to as the ‘High Temperature Short Time’ (HTST) process. Once the milk has been heated, it is then cooled very quickly to less than 3°C.
What are the conditions for the batch pasteurization of milk?
The terms “batch pasteurization”, “vat pasteurized” and “low heat pasteurized” shall mean the process of heating every particle of milk or milk product, in properly designed and operated equipment, to a minimum temperature of 69ºC (155ºF) and held continuously at or above that temperature for at least 30 minutes.
What temperature is pasteurization?
The most common method of pasteurization in the United States today is High Temperature Short Time (HTST) pasteurization, which uses metal plates and hot water to raise milk temperatures to at least 161° F for not less than 15 seconds, followed by rapid cooling.
Why pasteurization became a necessity in the modern times?
By eliminating the bacteria in the milk, it could be preserved longer. The easiest way to get rid of the bacteria was to heat the milk. Thus began the pasteurization process. Milk can also be heated to higher temperatures for shorter amounts of time.
What is the effect of pasteurization?
When performed properly, pasteurization destroys the pathogenic bacteria, yeast, molds, and almost all other nonpathogenic bacteria that may be associated with unpasteurized milk. Additionally, pasteurization inactivates most enzymes related to milk spoilage.
How is pasteurization used today?
What are the four types of pasteurization?
Top 4 Methods of Milk Pasteurization
- High Temperature Short Time. In the United States, the most common method of pasteurization is High Temperature Short Time (HTST).
- Higher Heat Shorter Time.
- Ultra High Temperature.
- Ultra Pasteurized.
What are the 2 methods of pasteurization?
Two Kinds of Pasteurization
- Low-Temperature Long Time (LTLT)
- High-Temperature Short Time (HTST)
What temp is pasteurization?
How is pasteurization effective?
Pasteurization systems are designed to provide a 5 log reduction of the microbial load using the most thermotolerant target pathogen Coxiella burnetii. With pasteurization, not only are pathogenic microorganisms killed but also a wide range of spoilage organisms are destroyed.
What are the conditions required for pasteurization?
With pasteurization, not only are pathogenic microorganisms killed but also a wide range of spoilage organisms are destroyed. Typical pasteurization conditions should be as follows: Not less than 62.8 °C or more than 65.6 °C for at least 30 min (holder method)
What is the process of pasteurization?
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 100 °C (212 °F), to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life.
When did pasteurization become mandatory in the US?
States in the U.S. soon began enacting mandatory dairy pasteurization laws, with the first in 1947, and in 1973 the U.S. federal government required pasteurization of milk used in any interstate commerce. The shelf life of refrigerated pasteurized milk is greater than that of raw milk.
How does pasteurization affect the shelf life of food?
Effects on nutritional and sensory characteristics of foods. Because of its mild heat treatment, pasteurization increases the shelf-life by a few days or weeks. However, this mild heat also means there are only minor changes to heat-labile vitamins in the foods.