What are the products of vacuum distillation?

What are the products of vacuum distillation?

Vacuum distillation produces several types of gas oil. These are slightly heavier than middle distillates such as jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel. In the next stage of refining, these gas oils are further refined to make products such as light-cycle oil (a type of distillate), gasoline, and naphtha.

What is atmospheric distillation process?

Atmospheric distillation is the first and most fundamental step in the the refining process. The primary purpose of the atmospheric distillation tower is to separate crude oil into its components (or distillation cuts, distillation fractions) for further processing by other processing units.

Is atmospheric distillation a unit process?

An atmospheric distillation unit in a crude oil refinery, is used to separate different hydrocarbon components of a crude oil mixture to be used for a variety of applications as products of crude oil refining.

Which tray is used in atmospheric distillation unit?

2.2 Atmospheric distillation unit (ADU) The ADU is a long column with many trays and operates at or above atmospheric pressure (typically 200 kPa). The trays have bubble caps or holes to allow vapor to pass through them and are either of the two-pass of four-pass types.

What is atmospheric and vacuum distillation?

Atmospheric distillation is a technique used to separate components in crude oil that is performed under atmospheric pressure. Vacuum distillation is a technique used to separate components in a mixture at a reduced pressure.

What tray is used in atmospheric distillation unit?

The atmospheric overhead is partially condensed in heat exchangers. When cooled, the naphtha condenses and exits as a liquid while the lighter products remain as gases. Uncondensed vapor flows to the fuel gas system, which is used as fuel for the furnaces. In the present model, a 27-tray column is assumed.

What is the difference between atmospheric and vacuum distillation?

The difference between atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation is that the atmospheric distillation is used to separate low boiling fraction of mixture whereas vacuum distillation allows the components to be separated easily by lowering the boiling point of a high boiling fraction.

What is importance of FCC and hydrocracker units in a refinery in BS VI scenario?

In a refinery, the hydrocracker upgrades VGO through cracking while injecting hydrogen. This yields a high volume of high-quality diesel and kerosene product. This is in contrast to the FCC, which uses the same feed (VGO) but produces more and better-quality gasoline.

How is crude oil used in distillation?

Crude oil is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and the distillation process aims to separate this crude oil into broad categories of its component hydrocarbons, or “fractions.” Crude oil is first heated and then put into a distillation column, also known as a still, where different products boil off and are …

Where is vacuum distillation used?

Vacuum distillation is often used in large industrial plants as an efficient way to remove salt from ocean water, in order to produce fresh water. This is known as desalination.

What equipment is used in distillation?

DISTILLATION EQUIPMENT. In addition to the stills, we fabricate all related stainless steel and copper equipment including fermenters, cookers, condensers, coolers, whiskey tanks, bottling tanks, etc. We are also a major supplier of equipment used in the distillation of industrial and power alcohol.

What is the principle of distillation?

Distillation, in a chemical sense, is nothing more than a physical-chemical separation carried out by a boiling followed by condensation. This can be rephrased and somewhat condensed in the statement: “distillation is a selective evaporation followed by condensation”. So, the principle in distillation is to separate components due to their distinct volatilities.

What is the temperature of distillation?

Distillation Process. The temperature for steam distilling is usually between 140–212 degrees Fahrenheit. Since different plants require different pressures, times, and temperatures, using this particular distillation method makes it possible to adjust the temperature based on the plant type, making it a very effective and precise way to obtain the purest compounds.

What is a vacuum distillation unit?

Basically, a vacuum distillation unit consists of a vacuum system, condensation and separation sections to produce diesel and VGO fractions, a vacuum residue (VR) in the bottom of the column, a VR de-entrainment section to keep the bottom of the column from coking and the furnace.

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