What are the theories of fertility?

What are the theories of fertility?

Attempts have been made from time to time to propound theories on fertility. These theories are conventionally grouped under three categories: biological theories, cultural theories and economic theories.

What is microeconomic theory of fertility?

20. Microeconomic Theory of Fertility: An Illustration • If there is an upward shift in income, it’s possible to afford both more children and consumer goods • Typically, poor families have more children that rich families.

What is fertility in sociology PDF?

Fertility refers to the actual production of offspring and not the biological potential to reproduce (fecundity). Sociologists also study variation in fertility across individuals because fertility number and timing can affect the life courses of individuals (of parents and children) and the families they form.

Can fertility be an adaptation?

In contrast, other evolutionary demographers at this time suggested that modern low fertility could in fact be adaptive provided that strong socio-economic advantages are transmitted across generations that safeguard future generations from levels of poverty or disease that would limit their reproduction (e.g. [81]).

What is fertility transition theory?

This term is used to describe the historical process whereby fertility and mortality rates declined from the high and approximately compensating levels that they exhibited in past times to the low and approximately compensating levels that they exhibit in rich countries today, with the intervening period generally …

What is the Malthusian population theory?

Thomas Malthus was an English economist and demographer best known for his theory that population growth will always tend to outrun the food supply and that betterment of humankind is impossible without strict limits on reproduction.

What are the microeconomic theories?

Microeconomic theory offers a general theory about how people make such decisions. This theory describes how the typical consumer, constrained by a limited income, chooses among the many goods and services offered for sale. The second section deals with the choices made by business organizations or firms.

How does global warming affect fertility?

Climatic changes may also spur shifts in fertility by decreasing children’s health and survival, which may lead women to have additional children in anticipation of increased mortality risks (“insurance effects”) or in response to an actual child death (“replacement effects”).

Does human male and female fertility vary the same way?

The fertility levels of males and females, as measured by the total fertility rate (TFR) or cohort fertility rate (CFR), can differ substantially, and male fertility can be both lower and higher than female fertility (Zhang 2011; Schoumaker 2017, 2019).

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