What is acanthosis histopathology?
Acanthosis is term pathologists use to describe an increased number of specialized squamous cells on the surface of a tissue. Acanthosis is commonly seen in the top layer of the skin called the epidermis. Acanthosis can also be seen in the epithelium that lines the inside of the mouth and throat.
What is Orthokeratosis?
Synonyms: orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. Definition: thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis (hyperkeratosis) with non-nucleated keratinocytes retained in this layer.
What is Orthokeratosis and Parakeratosis?
Orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis refers to the thickening of the keratin layer with preserved keratinocyte maturation, while parakeratotic hyperkeratosis shows retained nuclei as a sign of delayed maturation of keratinocytes.
What is basket weave Orthokeratosis?
Basket-weave orthokeratosis refers to a thickened cornified layer whose cells are arrayed in a criss-cross fashion that resembles the pattern in a woven basket, it is the same configuration, only thickened, assumed by the stratum corneum of normal skin anywhere on the integument except for palms and soles, where …
What causes acanthosis?
What Causes Acanthosis Nigricans? Acanthosis nigricans is most commonly caused by high blood insulin levels, a condition called insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is seen in people who are overweight or obese, and makes them more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
What is acanthosis and papillomatosis?
Malignant acanthosis nigricans is a rare paraneoplastic skin syndrome mostly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Florid cutaneous papillomatosis and tripe palms syndrome are considered to be abortive clinical variants of acanthosis nigricans.
What is compact Orthokeratosis?
Orthokeratosis. Orthokeratosis is the normal ‘basket weave’ appearance of the stratum corneum seen in normal skin. In acral skin (palms or soles), the stratum corneum exhibits thickening and compaction (‘compact orthokeratosis’).
Is parakeratosis a psoriasis?
Parakeratosis pustulosa Pitting of the nail plate may be present. Parakeratosis pustulosa can be considered a variant of psoriasis, but also other inflammatory diseases such as contact and atopic dermatitis should be considered.
What is basketweave fabric?
Also known as the Panama weave, basket weave is a simple type of colorful textile weave. It is a secondary form of plain weave, with two or more weft and warp yarns alternating to resemble a checkerboard effect. The knits of a basketweave fabric are loose, hence its breathability.
Can diabetes cause dark skin?
Diabetic patients, particularly if overweight or obese, can develop darkening and thickening of skin folds, thought to be due to insulin resistance. This condition is called acanthosis nigricans.
What is the difference between hyperkeratosis and orthokeratosis?
Either orthokeratotic (hyperkeratosis is exaggeration of normal pattern of keratinization with no nuclei in cornified layer) or parakeratotic (hyperkeratosis has retained nuclei in cornified layer) If exuberant, can induce pathologic changes leading to dry eye, chalazion, etc.
What is orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC)?
The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Surgery is the usual treatment, and recurrence or association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been described.
What is parakeratosis and how is it characterized?
Parakeratosis refers to the presence of nuclei within the cornified layer and is the consequence of a rapid turnover of the epidermal keratinocytes, instead of the usual 4 weeks. The presence of a normal basket-weave pattern above this indicates a recent onset. Parakeratosis can be present in small mounds or may be broad and confluent.
What is parakeratosis in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)?
The normal basket-weave pattern is lost in most PD and it is common to find parakeratosis. Parakeratosis refers to the presence of nuclei within the cornified layer and is the consequence of a rapid turnover of the epidermal keratinocytes, instead of the usual 4 weeks.