What is immune clearance phase?

What is immune clearance phase?

The immune clearance phase is a phase of HBeAg positive CHB, characterized by intermittent or persistent elevation of ALT levels and high HBV DNA levels, although not as high as in the immune tolerant phase.

Which immune cell is responsible for clearing HBV infections?

CD8 T cells clear HBV-infected hepatocytes through cytolytic and noncytolytic mechanisms, reducing the levels of circulating virus (Chisari 1997), whereas B-cell antibody production neutralizes free viral particles and can prevent reinfection (Fig. 2) (Alberti et al.

Can hepatitis B virus be cleared?

Some people, especially those who get infected in adulthood, are able to clear the virus from their bodies without treatment. For other people, acute hepatitis B leads to life-long infection known as chronic hepatitis B.

How does HBV reactivate?

Reactivation of hepatitis B refers to the abrupt increase in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in a patient with inactive or resolved hepatitis B. Reactivation can occur spontaneously, but more typically is triggered by immunosuppressive therapy of cancer, autoimmune disease, or organ transplantation.

Can inactive hepatitis B become active?

The inactive carrier state may for a lifetime, but a proportion of patients may undergo subsequent spontaneous or immunosuppressioninduced reactivation of HBV replication with reappearance of high levels of HBV DNA with or without HBeAg seroreversion and a rise in ALT levels [3].

What is immune tolerant phase of hepatitis B?

The so-called immune tolerant (IT) phase represents the classical early phase of infection; it is associated with high levels of HBV replication and lack of clinical signs of liver Inflammation.

What is the immune response to HBV?

Numerous studies have shown that HBV employs active strategies to evade innate immune responses and induce immunosuppression. Some of the immune components targeted by HBV include dendritic cells, natural killer cells, T regulatory cells and signalling pathways of the interferon response.

How does hepatitis B decoy the immune system?

The antibodies are shaped to latch onto the surface proteins of the virus. When they do this the virus is stopped from infecting a cell. But the antibodies also latch onto the extra proteins floating in the blood . In this way, the extra proteins act as decoys.

Can inactive hep B become active?

What causes HBV flare ups?

Hepatitis B flares that occur after 24 weeks of Nuc therapy are usually caused by drug resistance. Following an upsurge of drug-resistant HBV viraemia during continuing Nuc therapy, ALT increases gradually and may even lead to a hepatitis flare, decompensation or liver failure [3], [68].

Are hepatitis B patients immunocompromised?

Immunocompromised patients with hepatitis B are at risk for increased rates of disease progression, related to the presence of hepatitis B. Those patients have higher levels of ALT which reflects higher levels of inflammation which leads to higher rates of hepatic fibrosis.

Begin typing your search term above and press enter to search. Press ESC to cancel.

Back To Top