What is maleic anhydride used for?

What is maleic anhydride used for?

Maleic anhydride is used in the production of unsaturated polyester resin as well as in the manufacture of coatings, pharmaceutics, agricultural products, surfactants, and as an additive of plastics.

Where is phthalic anhydride used?

Phthalic anhydride is also used as an intermediate in the production of pigments and dyes, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and several other chemical products. Phthalic anhydride containing materials are used in coatings applications for home appliances, automobiles, medical devices and furniture.

What is maleic anhydride made from?

Production. Maleic anhydride is produced by vapor-phase oxidation of n-butane. In both cases, benzene and butane are fed into a stream of hot air, and the mixture is passed through a catalyst bed at high temperature. The ratio of air to hydrocarbon is controlled to prevent the mixture from igniting.

What is fumaric acid used for?

Abstract. Fumaric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide industrial applications ranging from its use as feedstock for the synthesis of polymeric resins to acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. Currently, fumaric acid is mainly produced by petroleum-based chemical synthesis.

Is phthalic anhydride safe?

Exposure to phthalic anhydride may occur during its use as a chemical intermediate in the plastics industry. The acute (short-term) effects from exposure to phthalic anhydride in humans consists of irritation to the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin, but no permanent injury is observed.

What happens when phthalic anhydride?

When heated openly in evaporating dish it will soon react with the atmospheric Oxygen to trigger the Oxidation reaction. It has a very low melting point of 64 Deg. and the moment it starts to melt it forms a corrosive solution.

Is maleic anhydride safe?

Chronic (long-term) exposure to maleic anhydride has been observed to cause chronic bronchitis, asthma-like attacks, and upper respiratory tract and eye irritation in workers. In some people, allergies have developed so that lower concentrations can no longer be tolerated.

Can you eat fumaric acid?

* On skin contact with Fumaric Acid, immediately wash or shower to remove the chemical. * Do not eat, smoke, or drink where Fumaric Acid is handled, processed, or stored, since the chemical can be swallowed.

What is fumarate biology?

Fumarate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food. It is formed by the oxidation of succinate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Fumarate is also a product of the urea cycle.

Who discovered malonic acid?

chemist Victor Dessaignes
French chemist Victor Dessaignes reported the first synthesis of malonic acid in 1858; he made it by oxidatively decomposing four-carbon malic acid with potassium dichromate.

What does maleic anhydride look like?

IDENTIFICATION: Maleic anhydride appears as colorless needles or white lumps or pellets. It has an irritating, choking odor. Maleic anhydride is very soluble in water and readily reacts with water to form maleic acid.

What is the history of maleic anhydride?

Maleic anhydride as well as maleic and fumaric acids were first prepared in the 1830s. However, commercial manufacture did not begin until a century later. In 1933, the National Aniline and Chemical Co., Inc., used a process for producing maleic anhydride based on benzene oxidation using a vanadium oxide catalyst.

Is maleic anhydride toxic to humans?

In humans, exposure to maleic anhydride may cause irritation to the respiratory tract, eyes, exposed mucosa, and skin. Maleic anhydride is also a skin and respiratory sensitizer. Maleic anhydride is a low hazard profile chemical.

What happens when you mix maleic anhydride with water?

Contact of maleic anhydride with water results in the undesired formation of maleic acid. The maleic anhydride that cannot be recovered is eventually washed out with water as maleic acid. Water scrubbing and subsequent dehydration of the maleic acid stream are required to purify and reform the remaining maleic anhydride.

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