What is polygenic diabetes?
The most common forms of diabetes, type 1 and type 2, are polygenic, meaning they are related to a change, or defect, in multiple genes. Environmental factors, such as obesity in the case of type 2 diabetes, also play a part in the development of polygenic forms of diabetes.
Is MODY type 1 or type 2?
MODY stands for “Maturity-onset diabetes of the young” and was given that name in the past because it acted more like adult type of diabetes (Type 2 Diabetes) but was found in young people. MODY limits the body’s ability to produce insulin, but is different than the juvenile type of diabetes (Type 1 Diabetes).
What is meant by polygenic disorder?
Polygenic disease: A genetic disorder that is caused by the combined action of more than one gene. Examples of polygenic conditions include hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes.
What is meant by monogenic?
Definition of monogenic : of, relating to, or controlled by a single gene and especially by either of an allelic pair.
What is monogenic disorder?
INTRODUCTION. Monogenic disorders (monogenic traits) are caused by variation in a single gene and are typically recognized by their striking familial inheritance patterns. Examples include sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Is MODY Type 3 Diabetes?
MODY 3 is typically diagnosed before 30 years of age and is often misdiagnosed as Type 1 diabetes mellitus. MODY 3 usually manifests with symptoms associated with high blood sugars. These include increased frequency of urination (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), and weight loss.
How many types of MODY diabetes are there?
There are now at least 14 different known MODY mutations. They include GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B, INS, NEURO1, PDX1, PAX4, ABCC8, KCNJ11, KLF11, CEL, BLK and APPL1. The different genes vary with respect to age of onset, response to treatment, and the presence of extra-pancreatic manifestations.
What is HNF1A and why is it important?
It allows insulin to be produced normally in childhood but the amount of insulin reduces as you get older. HNF1A is the commonest cause of monogenic diabetes in the UK and accounts for approximately 50% of cases. What can we say about diabetes caused by changes in HNF1A?
Can a change in the HNF1A gene cause diabetes?
It is very likely that a change in the HNF1A gene was also present in one of your parents and would have caused them to have diabetes as well. This does not mean that your diabetes will be identical to theirs and there can be considerable variation within the family.
What are sulphonylureas for HNF1A diabetes?
Individuals with HNF1A diabetes are often particularly sensitive to the blood glucose lowering effects of a group of tablets called sulphonylureas. Sulphonylureas include Gliclazide, Glipizide, Glibenclamide (Glyburide) and Tolbutamide and they work by stimulating the pancreas to produce insulin.
What is HNF1 homeobox A?
HNF1A (HNF1 Homeobox A) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HNF1A include Maturity-Onset Diabetes Of The Young, Type 3 and Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, 20 . Among its related pathways are Developmental Biology and Development and heterogeneity of the ILC family .