What speech is not protected by the First Amendment?
Categories of speech that are given lesser or no protection by the First Amendment (and therefore may be restricted) include obscenity, fraud, child pornography, speech integral to illegal conduct, speech that incites imminent lawless action, speech that violates intellectual property law, true threats, and commercial …
How are hate speech and counter speech related?
It also means responding to hate speech with empathy and challenging the hate narratives, rather than responding with more hate speech directed in the opposite direction. According to advocates, counterspeech is more likely to result in deradicalization and peaceful resolution of conflict.
What is outraging the modesty of a woman?
Outraging Modesty of Women The law (Section 354 IPC) makes it a special crime to use force against a woman, or even threaten to use force, if the intention is to ‘outrage her modesty’. It is an offence only when the accused intended or knew it to be likely that the acts in question would outrage the victim’s modesty.
When was hate speech defined?
Hate speech is defined by the Cambridge Dictionary as “public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation”.
What is an example of hate speech?
For example, the Nazi swastika, the Confederate Battle Flag (of the Confederate States of America), and pornography have all been considered hate speech by a variety of people and groups.
What is Article 354 A?
—Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.
How can I counter hate speech online?
Here’s how you can help combat hate speech online and stop the spread of violent actions:
- Hold platforms accountable for hate speech.
- Raise awareness of the problem.
- Support people who are targets of hate speech.
- Boost positive messages of tolerance.
- Notify organizations fighting hate about the worst instances you see.
What is the punishment for Section 323?
323. Punishment for voluntarily causing hurt. —Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.
What is female modesty?
Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others. The word “modesty” comes from the Latin word modestus which means “keeping within measure”. Standards of modesty are culturally and context dependent and vary widely.
Is hate speech legally defined?
There is no legal definition of “hate speech” under U.S. law, just as there is no legal definition for evil ideas, rudeness, unpatriotic speech, or any other kind of speech that people might condemn.
What IPC 509?
—Whoever, intending to insult the modesty of any woman, utters any word, makes any sound or gesture, or exhibits any object, intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that such gesture or object shall be seen, by such woman, or intrudes upon the privacy of such woman, shall be punished with simple …
What is a hate speech?
In the context of this document, the term hate speech is understood as any kind of communication in speech, writing or behaviour, that attacks or uses pejorative or discriminatory language with reference to a person or a group on the basis of who they are, in other words, based on their religion, ethnicity, nationality …
Who is affected by hate speech?
Males reported being the target of race- or ethnicity-related hate speech more often than females (3.9 and 2.4 percent for race, and 2.3 and 1.2 percent for ethnicity, respectively). Rates reported by males and females were similar for hate speech relating to religion, disability, and sexual orientation (Appendix 2).