How is injector duty cycle calculated?

How is injector duty cycle calculated?

If an injector is powered for 15 ms. at 6000 RPM, then the duty cycle is 75% (15 ms/20 ms). One way to simplify this process is to multiply IPW by 5.33, then divide RPM by that number. So in this example, 15 x 5.33 = 80, and 6000 / 80 = 75%.

What is main injection timing?

Injection timing, also called spill timing, is the moment when diesel fuel enters the cylinder during the combustion phase. The timing of the pump determines when it will inject fuel into the cylinder as the piston reaches the BTDC point.

What is late injection?

Abstract. The late-injection strategy (close after main-injection) of common-rail diesel engine is capable of enhancing combustion turbulence and reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions.

How is ignition delay calculated?

(2), the ignition delay has been expressed as usually [15] in terms of pressure and temperature:(3) τ ( T , p ) = Ap – n exp E a RT where Ea is the activation energy, R is the universal gas constant (8.314 J/mol K), A and n are parameters that are adjusted for each fuel and equivalence ratio, and for the range of …

What is max duty cycle?

In a welding power supply, the maximum duty cycle is defined as the percentage of time in a 10-minute period that it can be operated continuously before overheating.

What is Max duty cycle for fuel injectors?

It is usually not recommended to run an injector at more than 80% duty cycle under actual driving conditions. This 80% duty cycle operating limit is taken into account to make sure the injector will be large enough to feed the engine under actual operating conditions and will not starve the engine for fuel.

Why is checking injection timing is important?

Injection timing is an important engine parameter, which significantly affects the odorous emissions. If injection starts earlier, the initial air temperature and pressure are lower so the ignition delay would increase.

What is injection duration?

Injection duration is the period of time during which fuel enters the combustion chamber from the injector. It is the difference between EOI and SOI and is related to injection quantity. Injection pattern. The rate of injection of fuel often varies during the injection duration period.

What is advanced injection timing?

A timing advance is the number of degrees BTDC that ignition occurs. Usually the location is measured in degrees. For example, 10 degrees BTDC is when the crankshaft is 10 degrees before the piston is at its highest point in the cycle.

What is the maximum injection mold injection pressure?

Ri = Maximum injection (plastic) pressure ÷ maximum hydraulic pressure for the injection unit. From the machine specifications, we find that the maximum injection or plastic pressure possible is (for the sake of example) 26,500 psi.

What is the maximum volume of intramuscular injection?

Maximum vol- umes have been proposed across the various IM sites for adult patients3,12-16 (Table 1). Overall, 5 mL has been cited for adults as the maximum volume for a single IM injection, with lower maximums proposed for adult patients with less- developed or small muscle mass. 3,13,14 iNTRAMUsCUlAR iNJECTiONs.

How do you calculate hydraulic pressure in injection molding?

From the machine’s controller we find that the maximum hydraulic pressure we can set for the injection cylinder is 2250 psi. So: Ri = 26,500 psi/2250 psi = 11.78:1. To calculate the plastic pressure for backpressure during screw rotation with a machine setting of 75 psi hydraulic, multiply the hydraulic pressure times the intensification ratio.

What are the fundamentals of injection-time scan?

The fundamentals of the injection-time scan method are quite sound and apply logical methodologies. The process is focused on the quality of the molded part as influenced by the melt conditions within the mold cavity. The currently practiced RV test method is incapable of isolating and evaluating rheological conditions within the cavity.

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