What are flow lines groundwater?
A flow net is composed of two sets of lines: the equipotential lines and the flow lines. The equipotential lines connect points of equal head and the flow lines depict the interpreted groundwater flow path or flow direction.
What is groundwater discharge and recharge?
Replenishment of infiltrating groundwater is known as recharge. Discharge of groundwater occurs when water emerges from the ground. Confined aquifers are generally recharged where the aquifer materials are exposed at the surface (outcrop).
How many flow lines flow net?
A flow net consists of two sets of lines which must always be orthogonal (perpendicular to each other): flow lines, which show the direction of groundwater flow, and equipotentials (lines of constant head), which show the distribution of potential energy.
Where does groundwater flow through?
Under natural conditions, ground water moves along flow paths from areas of recharge to areas of discharge at springs or along streams, lakes, and wetlands. Discharge also occurs as seepage to bays or the ocean in coastal areas, and as transpiration by plants whose roots extend to near the water table.
Why does groundwater not flow in straight lines?
As already noted, groundwater does not flow in straight lines. It flows from areas of higher hydraulic head to areas of lower hydraulic head, and this means that it can flow “uphill” in many situations. This is illustrated in Figure 14.8.
How does groundwater flow through an aquifer?
Groundwater flows at right angles to the equipotential lines in the same way that water flowing down a slope would flow at right angles to the contour lines. The stream in this scenario is the location with the lowest hydraulic potential, so the groundwater that flows to the lower parts of the aquifer has to flow upward to reach this location.
Why is it important to understand how ground water flows?
Understanding how ground water flows is important when you want to know where to drill a well for a water supply, to estimate a well’s recharge area, or to predict the direction contamination is likely to take once it reaches the water table.
What do the Orange and blue lines mean on a hydrological map?
The dashed orange lines are equipotential, meaning lines of equal pressure. The blue lines are the predicted groundwater flow paths. The dashed lines red lines are no-flow boundaries, meaning that water cannot flow across these lines.