What are lactones and lactams?

What are lactones and lactams?

Compounds that may be considered as derived from a hydroxy catboxylic acid or amino carboxylic acid by loss of water intramolecularly are called generically “lactones” or “lactams”, respectively. Tautomeric forms of lactams are called “lactims”.

What is gamma lactam?

A lactam is a cyclic amide, which can be found in different forms: α-lactam (three-atom rings), β-lactam (four-atom rings), γ-lactam (five-atom rings), δ-lactam (six-atom rings), and ɛ-lactam (seven-atom rings). Lactam plays an important role in drug discovery.

Is lactam a primary amide?

A primary (1°) amide has nitrogen attached to a single carbon; a secondary (2°) amide has the nitrogen attached to two carbons; a tertiary (3°) amide has the nitrogen attached to three carbons. A cyclic amide is called a lactam.

How do you name a lactone?

Lactones are generally named after the carboxylic acid by using the suffix -lactone. A Greek letter is used to indicate the ring size. Thus, all γ-lactones have five-membered rings and all ε-lactones have seven-membered rings.

What is the difference between a lactam and a lactone?

is that lactone is (organic chemistry) a cyclic intramolecular ester derived from a hydroxy acid while lactam is (organic chemistry) any of a class of cyclic amides, that are the nitrogen analogs of lactones, formed by heating amino acids; the tautomeric enol forms are known as lactims.

What is lactone ring?

Lactones are cyclic carboxylic esters, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure (−C(=O)−O−), or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring. Lactones with three- or four-membered rings (α-lactones and β-lactones) are very reactive, making their isolation difficult.

How is lactam formed?


  1. Lactams form by the acid-catalyzed rearrangement of oximes in the Beckmann rearrangement.
  2. Lactams form from cyclic ketones and hydrazoic acid in the Schmidt reaction.
  3. Lactams form from cyclisation of amino acids.

Are amines bases?

Like ammonia, amines are bases. Compared to alkali metal hydroxides, amines are weaker (see table for examples of conjugate acid Ka values). The basicity of amines depends on: The electronic properties of the substituents (alkyl groups enhance the basicity, aryl groups diminish it).

Is lactic acid a lactone?

The name lactone derives from the ring compound called lactide, which is formed from the dehydration of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid (lactic acid) CH3-CH(OH)-COOH. In 1880 the German chemist Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig extended the name “lactone” to all intramolecular carboxylic esters.

How do you identify lactone?

Cyclic esters are called lactones. In these cases the COOH and OH groups that combine to form water are part of the same molecule (see above Classes of carboxylic acids: Hydroxy and keto acids). Lactones are known with rings of all sizes from 3 to 20 or more, although 3-membered rings are extremely unstable.

What is lactone used for?

Lactone 100mg Tablet is a medicine known as a diuretic (water pill). It is mainly used in the treatment of heart failure and high blood pressure. It reduces the swelling (edema) caused by some other conditions. This medicine is also used to treat low potassium levels in the body (hypokalemia).

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