What is obstetric hemorrhage?
INTRODUCTION. Major obstetric haemorrhage (MOH) refers to any kind of excessive bleeding (usually related to pregnancy) in a parturient. This could be during pregnancy, child birth, or in the postpartum period. Bleeding typically occurs vaginally but rarely in the abdominal cavity.
What is uterine atony?
Uterine atony, or failure of the uterus to contract following delivery, is the most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage. This review serves to examine the prevention and treatment of uterine atony, including risk-factor recognition and active management of the third stage of labor.
What are the stages of postpartum hemorrhage?
You’ll go through three postpartum bleeding stages: lochia rubra, lochia serosa and lochia alba.
What is secondary postpartum haemorrhage?
Secondary PPH is generally defined as any significant uterine bleeding occurring between 24 hours and 12 weeks postpartum [1,2]. However, definitions vary (eg, between 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum).
What causes obstetric hemorrhage?
After the placenta is delivered, these contractions help compress the bleeding vessels in the area where the placenta was attached. If the uterus does not contract strongly enough, called uterine atony, these blood vessels bleed freely and hemorrhage occurs. This is the most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage.
What causes uterine inertia?
Uterine inertia may be the cause or the result of dystocia. Primary uterine inertia results from failure of the uterus to properly contract during parturition. The cause is suspected to be hypocalcemia, a hormonal imbalance at parturition, or an inability of the myometrium to properly respond to contraction signals.
What causes uterine tonicity?
prolonged labor. very rapid labor. overdistention of the uterus, or excessive enlargement of the uterus. the use of oxytocin (Pitocin) or other drugs or general anesthesia during labor.
What is the meaning of postpartum hemorrhage?
15 June 2017: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is defined as a blood loss of 500 ml or more within 24 hours after birth. 1. PPH is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries, and the primary cause of nearly one quarter of all maternal deaths globally.