Why is cytochrome c oxidase used in DNA barcoding?

Why is cytochrome c oxidase used in DNA barcoding?

Use in DNA barcoding MT-CO1 is a gene that is often used as a DNA barcode to identify animal species. The MT-CO1 gene sequence is suitable for this role because its mutation rate is often fast enough to distinguish closely related species and also because its sequence is conserved among conspecifics.

What is the use of cytochrome oxidase 1 in species identification?

In 2003, a standardized 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (cox1 or COI) was proposed as a universal marker for species identification – to be used as a “DNA barcode” tagging any taxon in the animal kingdom1.

What is cytochrome oxidase and what is its action?

Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase is uniquely positioned to act as the control unit that sets and maintains metabolic homeostasis [see above and (40, 45)]. It is the third energy-coupling site of oxidative phosphorylation (site 3) and is responsible for reducing all of the oxygen used for ATP synthesis.

How does DNA barcoding help molecular phylogenetics?

From barcodes to phylogenies Because DNA barcodes are used both to identify species and to draw attention to overlooked and new species, they can help identify candidate exemplar taxa for a comprehensive phylogenetic study (Figure 1).

What is cytochrome c oxidase used for?

Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal complex of eukaryotic oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. This process couples the reduction of electron carriers during metabolism to the reduction of molecular oxygen to water and translocation of protons from the internal mitochondrial matrix to the inter-membrane space.

Why is cytochrome c useful for evolution?

Cytochrome c is primarily known as an electron-carrying mitochondrial protein. The transition of cytochrome c between the ferrous and ferric states within the cell, makes it an efficient biological electron-transporter and it plays a vital role in cellular oxidations in both plants and animals.

What is the role of the cox1 gene in an organism?

For DNA barcoding of animals, the CO1 gene can be used to identify individuals belonging to the same species, as well as to distinguish between individuals from different species.

What happens if cytochrome c oxidase inhibited?

At the cellular level, noncompetitive inhibition of cytochrome oxidase with sodium azide causes a rapid and reversible reduction in cardiomyocyte contraction and metabolic demand, mimicking myocardial hibernation. Importantly, cytochrome oxidase inhibition has been described during sepsis.

Where is cytochrome c oxidase located?

Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a large integral membrane protein which is encoded in the mitochondrial genome. It is a terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and it is expressed in the mitochondrial inner membrane.

Is the Cox 1 gene a useful DNA barcode for Trypanosoma?

Therefore, the cox 1 gene is a promising DNA barcode for studying the genus Trypanosoma and represents a simple, fast and reliable marker. ABGD: BI: BrBOL:

How to confirm a gene as a barcode marker?

To confirm a gene as a barcode marker, it is essential to calculate the “barcoding gap”, that is, the gap between the maximum intraspecific and minimum interspecific genetic distances that establish the limits between species [ 16 ].

Is DNA barcoding a reliable tool to identify triomycetes cruzigenotypes?

DNA barcoding using the cox1 gene is a reliable tool to distinguish T. cruzifrom T. c. marinkellei, T. dionisiiand T. rangeliand identify the main T. cruzigenotypes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13071-017-2457-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

How to recognize Trypanosoma species by DNA barcoding?

In the present study, the DNA barcoding approach using the cox 1 gene has been demonstrated to be efficient at recognizing Trypanosoma species and their major subpopulations.

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