Where is brucellosis most common?

Where is brucellosis most common?

While brucellosis is rare in the United States, it is more common in other parts of the world, especially:

  • Southern Europe, including Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Southern France.
  • Eastern Europe.
  • Mexico, South and Central America.
  • Asia.
  • Africa.
  • The Caribbean.
  • The Middle East.

What is the epidemiology of brucellosis?

Worldwide, approximately 500,000 cases are reported annually [6], and there are an estimated 2.4 billion people at risk [7]. All age groups are affected. The prevalence of brucellosis has been increasing due to growing international tourism, trade, and migration [8,9].

What are the risk factors of brucellosis?

Common risk factors in the development of Brucellosis include:

  • Living or travelling to brucellosis endemic countries.
  • Occupational exposure.
  • Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or raw meat products.
  • Hunting.

How many cases of brucellosis are there?

There are approximately 500,000 reported incident cases of human brucellosis annually; however, true incidence is estimated at 5,000,000 to 12,500,000 cases annually [11–13]. Brucellosis is recognized as the world’s most common laboratory-acquired infection [14].

Where did brucellosis originate?

The disease we now know as brucellosis was first discovered in the 1850s in Malta. It came to the attention of British medical officers serving on the island after the Crimean War. It was easy to eliminate the disease in British servicemen, but very difficult to reach Maltese citizens.

How does brucellosis reproduce?

In animals, Brucella are usually spread through contact with infected birthing tissues and fluids (e.g., placenta, aborted fetuses, fetal fluids, vaginal discharges). The bacteria can also be found in the milk, blood, urine and semen of infected animals.

How can brucellosis be prevented?

Can brucellosis be prevented? There is no vaccine available for brucellosis. However, you can reduce your risk if you avoid eating or drinking unpasteurized milk, cheese and ice cream when you travel. Hunters should wear rubber gloves when handling the internal organs of animals.

Why brucellosis is called Mediterranean fever?

Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. It is also known as undulant fever, Malta fever, and Mediterranean fever….

Specialty Infectious disease
Symptoms coughing

How long does brucellosis last?

The symptoms usually improve and are completely gone within about two to six months. However, the prognosis is poor in people who develop organ changes or complications such as heart damage, neurological, or genitourinary problems caused by chronic Brucella infection.

Is brucellosis an endemic disease in Africa?

Brucellosis is endemic in livestock in most countries of Africa including Nigeria [3, 4] and is an established endemic disease in slaughtered cattle population with a prevalence of 16.2% in sub-Saharan Africa (2002) [5] and 3.5% in Nigeria (2001) [6, 7].

Which abattoirs in Abuja have the highest prevalence of Human brucellosis?

Our findings show that the seroprevalence of human brucellosis among abattoir workers was high in the two busiest abattoirs in Abuja. Among the various categories of abattoir workers that we screened, butchers had the highest seropositivity rate.

What is the prevalence of brucellosis in pigs?

The prevalence of risk factors for infections are best understood for bovine brucellosis and to a lesser extent for ovine and caprine brucellosis. The occurrence and epidemiology of brucellosis in pigs is poorly understood. This species bias is also reflected in control activities.

What is the epidemiological significance of brucellosis?

The epidemiological significance of brucellosis in relation to the risk of transmission to livestock and humans has been debated extensively in the literature ( Bishop and Bosman, 1994, Motsi et al., 2013 ).

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